Content Archives – amino DEFENSE®

 

The immune response to influenza vaccine is attenuated in elderly persons, though they are at greatest risk for morbidity and mortality by influenza virus infection. Experimental studies demonstrate that co-administration of L-cystine and L-theanine enhanced antigen-specific production of immunoglobulin in aged mice infected with influenza virus. This study investigated the effect of L-cystine and L-theanine on antibody induction by influenza vaccines in elderly persons.

 

The study showed that vaccination significantly elevated hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titers for all three strains of influenza viruses (A/New Caledonia [H1N1], A/New York [H3N2] and B/Shanghai) in both groups of participants, allowing researchers to conclude that Co-administration of L-cystine and L-theanine before vaccination may enhance the immune response to influenza vaccine in elderly subjects with low serum total protein or hemoglobin. More...

 

 

Effects of L-Cystine and L-Theanine Supplementation on the Common Cold: A Randomized, Double-Blind, and Placebo-Controlled Trial

 

It has been previously reported that oral administration of the amino acids cystine and theanine (CT) to mice enhanced the humoral immune response associated with antibody production. Based on this mouse study, researchers investigated the effects of CT supplementation on humans. More...

 

 

 

In this study, researchers investigated the effects of supplementation with cystine, a dipeptide of cystine, and theanine (CT), a precursor of glutamate, on immune variables during high-intensity resistance exercise. The subjects trained according to their normal schedule (3 times per week) in the first week and trained at double the frequency (6 times per week) in the second week.

 

Results suggest that natural killer cell activity (NKCA) is not affected in a normal training schedule with or without CT supplementation. However, high-intensity and high frequency resistance exercises cause attenuation of NKCA, which CT supplementation appears to restore. Therefore, in practical application, CT supplementation would be useful for athletes to restore the attenuation of NKCA during high intensity and high-frequency training. More...

 

 

 

In this study, the immune state was investigated after administering cystine/theanine (CT), which has been reported to have an immune reinforcement effect, to athletes before training.

 

Study observations suggest that the ingestion of CT contributed to suppressing the change in inflammatory response and prevented a decrease in the immune function. More...

 

 

 

This study was designed to determine the effects of cystine and and theanine (CT) supplementation on the inflammatory response and immune state before and after intense endurance exercise in long-distance runners at a training camp.

 

Results showed that CT supplementation significantly attenuated the increase in neutrophil count and the reduction in lymphocyte count induced by intense endurance exercise. These results suggest that CT supplementation may suppress the exercise-induced fluctuation of the blood immunocompetent cells and may help to reduce the alteration of the immune state. More...

 

 

 

Glutathione (GSH) is important in the control of immune responses, and its levels decline following trauma. Researchers previously reported that the oral administration of cystine/theanine (CT) increased GSH synthesis and that CT intake inhibited intense exercise-induced inflammation. Based on these results, researchers hypothesized that CT promotes postoperative recovery. Their aim was to confirm this hypothesis using a mouse surgical model.

 

This study determined that treatment with CT inhibited the manipulation-induced increase in interleukin (IL-6) in the blood and decrease in GSH in the intestine. There was a significant negative correlation between IL-6 in the blood and GSH in the intestine. In addition, behavioral analysis revealed that CT administration improved locomotor activity and food intake after surgery. These results suggest that CT suppresses inflammatory responses by inhibiting the surgically induced decrease in GSH in the small intestine and promotes postoperative recovery. More...

 

 

 

Preventing organ dysfunction and immune suppression by inhibiting excess inflammation is considered an important aspect of perioperative surgical management, and several studies have indicated that immunonutrition is effective for this purpose. In this study, researchers  examined the effects of oral administration of cystine and theanine during the perioperative period as a pilot study.

 

This study suggested that oral administration of cystine and theanine during the perioperative period may alleviate postgastrectomy inflammation and promote recovery after surgery. Future studies are expected to define the efficacy and mechanisms of cystine and theanine. More...

 

 

 

This review article, authored by Daniel J. Freidenreich and Jeff S. Volek of the Human Performance Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut, presents a detailed look at factors shown to alter the temporal pattern and/or magnitude of immune responses to resistance exercise including manipulation of acute program variables, the aging process, and nutritional supplementation. More...

 

 

 

Heavily exercising endurance athletes experience extreme physiologic stress, which is associated with temporary immunodepression and higher risk of infection, particularly upper respiratory tract infections (URTI). The aim of this paper is to provide a critical up-to-date review of existing evidence on the immunomodulatory potential of selected macronutrients and to evaluate their efficacy. More...

 

 

 

This study was performed to investigate the effects of oral administration of L-cystine and/or L-theanine on glutathione levels and immune responses.

 

The results of the study clearly indicate that co-administration of L-cystine and L-theanine significantly enhances the glutathione level in the liver. In addition, co-administration was shown to significantly enhance antigen-specific IgG antibody production. More...

 

 

 

This paper, which is part of a series discussing the A to Z of nutritional supplements, includes an overview of the non-essential amino acid cystine. Among other information, the paper includes specific reference to cystine and the immune response to intense exercise training. More...

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This site is intended for U.S. residents only.
© 2017 Ajinomoto Co., Inc. All rights reserved.